Intensification of radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the settings of the COVID-19 pandemic: A literature review

S.A. Kopochkina1, A.D. Savkhatova2, M.D. Zekebaev2, D.E. Chen1, E.R. Davletgildeyev1

1. НАО «Казахский национальный медицинский университет им. С.Д. Асфендиярова», Алматы, Республика Казахстан;
2. АО «Казахский научно-исследовательский институт онкологии и радиологии», Алматы, Республика Казахстан

DOI: 10.52532/2663-4864-2021-4-62-48-56

УДК: 618.19-006.6+615.849:616.036.21+578.834.1

Год: 2021 выпуск: 62 номер: 4 страницы: 48-56

Скачать PDF: 2012.2-3.24-25_10.pdf

Аннотация:

Relevance: Since 2004, breast cancer steadily ranks first in the structure of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in the Republic of Kazakhstan in both sexes. In 2020, its share was 14.5% (vs. 15.2% in 2019). Breast cancer also constantly ranks first in the structure of female cancer incidence, with 44.3 0⁄0000 in 2020 (vs. 51.6 0⁄0000 in 2019). In the early 1980s, radiation
therapy was a standard specialized treatment for breast cancer. The current realities of the COVID-19 pandemic require a reorganization of healthcare facilities to determine the priorities. It is also important to balance the economic and clinical efficacy of radiotherapy methods applied.
The study aimed to analyze the results of large randomized trials and compare breast cancer outcomes after hypofractionated and standard fractionation radiation treatment.
Methods: We reviewed the results of large randomized trials of hypofractionated radiation therapy, emphasizing good patient selection according to the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) guidelines. Radiobiological aspects of hypofractionation were considered due to its implementation in clinical practice. The research materials were obtained from the “PubMed” database of evidence-based medicine by the keywords “radiotherapy,” “breast cancer,” “hypofractionation dose” for the period of 2000-2021. Large randomized trials involving patients of any age diagnosed with stages T1-3, N0-1 breast cancer, who underwent beam therapy in standard or hypofractionated mode, met the criteria for inclusion in this study.
Results: According to the results of large randomized trials, the hypofractionated regimen is similar to the standard regimen in terms of late effects on normal tissues and ensures reasonable control over the oncological process.
Conclusions: Hypofractionation has proven effectiveness and safety and lower late and acute radiation toxicity when treating early breast cancer. Hypofractionation can become a new standard of radiation therapy at early stages after breast-conserving surgery.

Ключевые слова: radiotherapy, breast cancer, dose hypofractionation.

Ссылка: S.A. Kopochkina, A.D. Savkhatova, M.D. Zekebaev, D.E. Chen, E.R. Davletgildeyev. Intensification of radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the settings of the COVID-19 pandemic: A literature review. Oncology and Radiology of Kazakhstan, 2021, 62 (4), 48-56.

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